Articles & research papers

User Experience

Design Census- A Survey by Google and AIGA To Check Salaries and More

Google and AIGA have released survey results of their first annual Design Census—an open and collaborative resource for you to important things like gauge design salaries, benefits, working hours and job satisfaction. It offers meaningful filters like location, job type, seniority levels, industry and more.

Design Census

Happy New Year and The 5 Most Popular Posts of 2016

I would like to wish all readers of The UX Bookmark a very happy new year and hope this year is filled with joy and success for you all.

I started The UX Bookmark in 2009, and over the years, it has amassed quite a following, with roughly one out of every four people I meet working in UX now knowing about it. I built it to help UX practitioners grow themselves worldwide by offering the best authoritative content there is on the web, and it’s been working, definitely a good feeling.

What’s been the most popular last year? Here are five most popular posts of 2016.


A huge list of Style Guides and UI Guidelines

Ultimate guide to table UI patterns

Charting application alternatives to using Excel

Download IDEO’s Human Centered Design Toolkit

What is the Deep-Dive Brainstorming technique?

By the way, join the 2100 plus strong Facebook group and get access to exclusive content meant only for Facebook group members.

Also, if you’ve not already, subscribe to the ever popular The UX Bookmark email list and you’ll never miss a post ever again-

Once again, have a lovely new year, make it count, and always stay in awe.


Google’s Responsive Web Design Basics

The use of mobile devices to surf the web is growing at an astronomical pace, but unfortunately much of the web isn’t optimized for those mobile devices. Mobile devices are often constrained by display size and require a different approach to how content is laid out on screen.

There is a multitude of different screen sizes across phones, “phablets”, tablets, desktops, game consoles, TVs, even wearables. Screen sizes will always be changing, so it’s important that your site can adapt to any screen size, today or in the future.

Google’s Responsive Web Design Basics

Removing Features

Applications have a natural tendency to grow. If you don’t pay attention, what started out as an elegant, simple application that perfectly solves a single problem, can quickly turn into a huge behemoth of an application that solves a ton of problems, but solves all of them poorly. Features are always more complex than you think, and many small features quickly add up to one large mess.

Constant vigilance is the price you pay for an elegant application.

Removing Features

Design at Facebook

Facebook’s design team walks the author through their philosophy and approach to designing for a quarter billion users. In particular, they emphasized the importance of writing code, sharing designs early and often, being involved with a project from start to finish, and not falling in love with your work. Making sure designers are technical enough to write code came up a lot.

This is an article from 2009.

Design at Facebook

Education in HCI

The HCI Education page is a collection of resources for students and educators interested in Human-Computer Interaction. The following are key resources for HCI Education:

  1. Curriculum: The SIGCHI Curriculum Development Group report Curricula in Human-Computer Interaction.
  2. Affordable Textbook: Clayton Lewis and John Rieman’s shareware book Task-Centered User Interface Development.
  3. Readings: Gary Perlman’s Suggested Readings in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), User Interface (UI) Development & Human Factors (HF).
  4. Educator’s Mailing List: The SIGCHI Mailing List: CHI-Educators ( CHI-Educators is archived on the Web
  5. Student’s Mailing List: The SIGCHI Mailing List: CHI-Students ( CHI-Students is archived on the Web
  6. Program Ratings: Because it is so often asked, I have created: Gary Perlman’s Ratings of HCI Education Programs

Education in HCI

User-centred design and organisational maturity

For a web site to be successful its intended audience must find it easy to use. As this maxim finds increasing recognition organisations are asking: “What can we do to create a site that’s easy to use?” The answer for most, it seems, is usability testing.

But usability testing is only one part of producing highly-usable sites: the most effective and reliable way to ensure fundamental usability is to follow a user-centred design process. And the success of this approach is largely dependent on the wider organisational attitude towards usability.

The author discusses what lies beyond usability testing: using ISO international standards as a basis, he details the range of activities that make up user-centred design and introduce formal levels of organisational maturity regarding usability. He also shows how organisations can use this knowledge to optimise their design process.

User-centred design and organisational maturity

Personas Make Users Memorable for Product Team Members

A persona is a fictional, yet realistic, description of a typical or target user of the product. A persona is an archetype instead of an actual living human, but personas should be described as if they were real people.

When based on user research, personas support user-centered design throughout a project’s life cycle by making characteristics of key user segments more salient.

Personas work because designers and developers have the same tendency as all other people to be captivated more by concrete instances than by abstractions and generalizations. We need all product-team members to empathize with users and be willing to go the extra step to develop something that will work for the actual users. But if users are described in statistical terms and as broad profiles, that information will simply not lodge itself as deeply in team members’ brains as a distinct persona will.

Personas Make Users Memorable for Product Team Members

Fill Your Portfolio With Stories

On the trail of exploring our next career move, it’s likely we’ll need to show the path we’ve been on. As part of a design team, that usually means displaying our work.

However, if we didn’t make proper arrangements before we took the job, it’s very likely we can’t show much of our work to anyone. Consultants, contractors, and full-time employees are usually covered (in the US at least, but most other places as well) by a “work for hire” agreement, which means that the people we work for own all the work product we produce.

Wireframes, sketches, and other deliverables are not ours to show. If the final design isn’t publicly visible, such as internal application, there might not be any evidence of what we’ve done.

This puts us in an uncomfortable position when it comes time to show our work to a prospective employer. How do we show what we’re capable of when we don’t have access to our work? What can you put into your portfolio when your work is all locked up? The simple answer: Fill your portfolio with stories.

Fill Your Portfolio With Stories

How to Measure Visual Appeal

Is a beautiful website more usable? Psychological literature has discussed, for some time, the "what is beautiful is good" phenomenon. That is, we ascribe positive attributes to things that are more attractive.

This applies to people and likely to products and websites, as well. But does that positive halo also carry over to our impressions of website usability? It’s a bit of an open research question, but first, it needs to be considered: how reliable are impressions of website beauty?

In reviewing the literature on rating aesthetics, beauty and visual appeal, researchers often generate their own set of questions and scales to measure these somewhat fuzzy and overlapping constructs. There’s nothing wrong with creating new scales, but without any validation, there’s a risk that the way the items are worded may generate misleading or less accurate results than those from scales which have been subjected to psychometric validation.

How to Measure Visual Appeal